Cotton in Industry


Spinning Process

Spinning is the process of translating cotton fibres into yarn or thread. The fibres go through various processes in preparation for spinning. The preparation process is as show:
What happens in spinning?
  • Spinning draws out the fuzzy fibres from the mass of cotton and twists them together into a long, apparently continuous thread.
  • Spinning machines have a metal spike called a spindle which the thread winds around.
  • The spindle is turned by attaching it with a pulley to a larger wheel (or several wheels) which is rotated mechanically.
  • One complete turn of the large wheel makes the spindle turn many times, just like gears on a bicycle.
  • Each spinning cycle takes only a few seconds and involves turning the wheel clockwise, anticlockwise and then clockwise again.
  • This cycle pulls fibres from the cylinder in the left hand, twisting the thread and then winding the finished thread onto the spindle.
  • After spinning, threads can be dyed and or treated with chemicals to prevent shrinkage or creasing, before weaving into fabrics.
Weaving Process

Even after 5000 years ago, process of weaving remains much same as it did earlier. Today, commercial mechanized factories have made possible to produce bulk quantity of fabric at much faster rate.


Weaving is basically interlacing of two sets of thread, the wrap and the weft, to produce fabric.The basic technique involves holding the parallel warp threads taut while the weft is threaded over and under in rows. Alternately to make it easier and make a space or shed, warp threads are raised. The weft thread fed through the shed gaps using a block known as a shuttle. On the returning, or counter shed, the other set of warp threads are hauled up so the weft can be intertwined. The weft is pulled down using a comb. Warp and weft can be controlled to bring in extra threads and complex patterns.


All over South Asia, regional variation in method still exists.

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